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World Congress and Expo on Optometry and Vision Science
(10 Plenary Forums - 1Event), will be organized around the theme “Strengthening in Diagnosis & Remedy for Vision of Life”
World Optometry 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in World Optometry 2017
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Visual Neuroscience is a branch of neuroscience that focuses on the visual system of the human body, mainly located in the brain's visual cortex. The main goal of visual neuroscience is to understand how neural activity results in visual perception, as well as behaviors dependent on vision. In the past, visual neuroscience has focused primarily on how the brain (and in particular the Visual Cortex) responds to light rays projected from static images and onto the retina. While this provides a reasonable explanation for the visual perception of a static image, it does not provide an accurate explanation for how we perceive the world as it really is, an ever-changing, and ever-moving 3-D environment.
- Track 1-1Measures of Visual Sensation
- Track 1-2Color Vision
- Track 1-3clinical neuropsychology
Uveitis is less common in children than in adults, and its diagnosis and management can be particularly challenging. Young children are often asymptomatic either because of inability to express complaints or because of the truly asymptomatic nature of their disease. Even in advanced cases, parents may not be aware of severe visual impairment until the development of externally visible changes such as band keratopathy, strabismus, or leukocoria. Therefore, the diagnosis is often delayed and severe complications may be seen at the time of initial visit. Young children may not be cooperative for a complete ocular examination and subtle findings of intraocular inflammation such as trace cells may be easily missed in the early stages of the disease. Children, in general, tend to have more severe and chronic intraocular inflammation that frequently results in ocular complications and visual loss. In children who present with amblyopia or strabismus, a careful examination is required to rule out uveitis as an underlying cause. Delayed and variable presentations cause a distinct challenge in the diagnosis of uveitis in children, furthermore differential diagnosis also requires awareness of etiologies which are different from adults. There are unique forms of uveitis and masquerade syndromes in this age group, while some entities commonly encountered in adults are rare in children.
- Track 2-1Signs and symptoms
- Track 2-2 Classification
- Track 2-3Differential Diagnosis
- Track 2-4Prognosis
Optometric Vision therapy, also known as vision training, is used to improve vision skills such as eye movement control and eye coordination. It involves a series of procedures carried out in both home and office settings, usually under professional supervision by an orthoptist.
Vision therapy can be prescribed when a comprehensive eye examination indicates that it is an appropriate treatment option. The specific program of therapy is based on the results of standardized tests and the person's signs and symptoms. Programs typically involve eye exercises and the use of lenses, prisms, filters, occluders, specialized instruments, and computer programs. The course of therapy may last weeks to several years, with intermittent monitoring by the eye doctor.
Vision Therapy is supervised by optometric vision care professionals and many types of specialized and/or medical equipment can be used in Optometric Vision Therapy programs, such as:
- corrective lenses (regulated medical devices);
- therapeutic lenses (regulated medical devices);
- prism lenses (regulated medical devices);
- optical filters;
- occluders or eye patches
- electronic targets with timing mechanisms;
- computer software;
- balance boards (vestibular device)
- visual-motor-sensory integration training devices
The term cognitive vision has been introduced in the past few of years to encapsulate an attempt to achieve more robust, resilient, and adaptable computer vision systems by endowing them with a cognitive faculty: the ability to learn, adapt, weigh alternative solutions, and develop new strategies for analysis and interpretation. The key characteristic of a cognitive vision system is its capacity to exhibit robust performance even in circumstances that were not foreseen when it was designed. Furthermore, a cognitive vision system should be able to anticipate events and adapt its operation accordingly. Ideally, a cognitive vision system should be able to recognize and adapt to novel variations in the current visual environment, generalize to new contexts and application domains, interpret the intent of underlying behaviour to predict future configurations of the visual environment, and communicate an understanding of the environment to other systems, including humans.
Dry eye is a condition in which a person doesn't have enough quality tears to lubricate and nourish the eye. Tears are necessary for maintaining the health of the front surface of the eye and for providing clear vision. Dry eye is a common and often chronic problem, particularly in older adults.With each blink of the eyelids, tears spread across the front surface of the eye, known as the cornea. Tears provide lubrication, reduce the risk of eye infection, wash away foreign matter in the eye, and keep the surface of the eyes smooth and clear. Excess tears in the eyes flow into small drainage ducts in the inner corners of the eyelids, which drain into the back of the nose. Dry eyes can occur when tear production and drainage is not in balance.
- Track 5-1What causes dry eyes
- Track 5-2How is dry eye diagnosed
- Track 5-3How is dry eye treated
Susac syndrome is an autoimmune condition that affects very fine blood vessels in the brain, retina, andcochlea (inner ear). It is characterized by three main symptoms: encephalopathy (which can cause headache, mild memory loss, personality changes, and confusion); sensorineural hearing loss; and vision loss. Most people do not have all the symptoms of Susac syndrome at the beginning of their illness but develop symptoms over the course of several years. Susac syndrome affects women more than men and the age of onset is usually between 20 and 40 years. The cause of this condition is still unknown. Corticosteroids,antiplatelets, anticoagulation, and cyclophosphamide have been used to treat Susac syndrome. However, the extent to which individuals respond to treatment is not clear. Improvement may occur spontaneously although in some cases there may be residual dysfunction.
- Track 6-11-1 Diagnosis
- Track 6-21-2 Treatment
- Track 6-31-3 Pathogenesis
The cornea is the eye’s outermost layer. It is the clear, domeshaped surface that covers the front of the eye. It plays an important role in focusing vision. Although the cornea may look clear and seem to lack substance, it is a highly organized tissue. Unlike most tissues in the body, the cornea contains no blood vessels to nourish or protect it against infection. Instead, the cornea receives its nourishment from tears and the aqueous humor (a fluid in the front part of the eye that lies behind the cornea).The tissues of the cornea are arranged in three basic layers, with two thinner layers, or membranes, between them. Each of these five layers has an important function. These layers are: Epithelium, Bowman’s membrane, Stroma, Descemet’s Membrane, Endothelium. The cornea acts as a barrier against dirt, germs, and other particles that can harm the eye. The cornea shares this protective task with the eyelids and eye sockets, tears, and the sclera (white part of the eye). The cornea also plays a key role in vision by helping focus the light that comes into the eye. The cornea is responsible for 65-75 percent of the eye’s total focusing power. The cornea and lens of the eye are built to focus light on the retina, which is the light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye. When light strikes the cornea, it bends—or refracts—the incoming light onto the lens. The lens refocuses that light onto the retina, which starts the translation of light into vision. The retina converts light into electrical impulses that travel through the optic nerve to the brain, which interprets them as images.
- Track 7-1Corneal Infections and Inflammation
- Track 7-2Basic Corneal Research & Imaging
- Track 7-3Dystrophies, Degeneration & Genetics
- Track 7-4Corneal Disorders
- Track 7-5disorders and differential diagnosis in adults and children
: Glaucoma is a complicated disease in which damage to the optic nerve leads to progressive, irreversible vision loss. Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness. Glaucoma is a disease of the eye in which fluid pressure within the eye rises - if left untreated the patient may lose vision, and even become blind. The disease generally affects both eyes, although one may have more severe signs and symptoms than the other.There is a small space in the front of the eye called the "anterior chamber". Clear liquid flows in-and-out of the anterior chamber, this fluid nourishes and bathes nearby tissues. If a patient has glaucoma,the fluid does not drain properly - it drains too slowly - out of the eye. This leads to fluid build-up, and pressure inside the eye rises. Unless this pressure is brought down and controlled, the optic nerve and other parts of the eye may become damaged, leading to loss of vision.There are two main types of glaucoma, open angle and closed angle (angle closure) glaucoma. The fluid in the eye flows through an area between the iris and cornea, where it escapes via the trabecular meshwork - "angle" refers to this area. The trabecular meshwork is made of sponky tissue lined by trabeculocytes. Fluid drains into s set of tubes, known as Schlemm's canal, from which they flow into the blood system.
- Track 8-1Types
- Track 8-2 Causes
- Track 8-3Symptoms
- Track 8-4Diagonosis
- Track 8-5Treatment
: Refractive error means that the shape of the eye does not bend light correctly, resulting in a blurred image. The main types of refractive errors are myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), presbyopia (loss of near vision with age), and astigmatism. Refractive disorders are commonly treated using corrective lenses, such as eyeglasses or contact lenses. Refractive surgery (such as LASIK) can also be used to correct some refractive disorders. Presbyopia, in the absence of any other refractive error, can sometimes be treated with over-the-counter reading glasses. There is no way to slow down or reverse presbyopia. A refractive error can be diagnosed by an eye care professional during a routine eye examination. Testing usually consists of asking the patient to read a vision chart while testing an assortment of lenses to maximize a patient’s vision. Special imaging or other testing is rarely necessary.
- Track 9-1Myopia
- Track 9-2Hyperopia
- Track 9-3Astigmatism
- Track 9-4Presbyopia
Each year, more than 1 million people sustain traumatic brain injuries. Following a brain injury, there is often an interruption in communication between the eyes and the brain. Neuro-optometry is a specialty field of vision care that combines neurology and optometry to assess how the brain processes information sent from the eyes. When communication between your brain and eyes is disrupted due to injury or disease, vision problems usually occur.A patient who may have experienced brain injury, stroke, balance and mobility issues, loss of one eye, double vision, light sensitivity, post trauma vision syndrome, or visual midline shift syndrome should be referred to a neuro-optometrist for further evaluation. Following an injury or insult to the brain, there is often an interruption to the neurological system which innervate the extraocular muscles controlling eye movements as well as the system that regulates focusing (clear versus blurry vision). Neuro-optometrists have long recognized symptoms and visual problems associated with trauma that affect the functional visual system and have identified a syndrome, Post Trauma Vision Syndrome (PTVS).
- Track 10-1Neuro-Optometric Disorders
- Track 10-2Neuro-Optometric Evaluation
- Track 10-3Neuro-Visual Therapy
Clinical optometry defines the practice of diagnosing and treating disorders of the eye to improve vision in a clinic or similar setting. Doctors of optometry use special instruments to measure defects in vision and prescribe contact lenses or eyeglasses to correct deficiencies. They may also perform minor surgeries to remove foreign bodies from an eye and suggest exercises to improve the way eyes function.During a clinical optometry examination, the doctor measures the patient’s ability to see objects at various distances, along with the ability to see color and light. An optometrist also looks for injury or disease that might be linked to declining eyesight. He or she typically measures pressure in the eye to detect glaucoma, a common disorder as people age, where too much fluid builds up in the eye. If left untreated, glaucoma could cause blindness.Clinical optometry includes observation for cataracts, a condition marked by clouded lenses. Cataracts might cause vision loss and is also related to aging. If this disorder is discovered, the optometrist commonly refers patients to an ophthalmologist for surgery to remove cataracts. An optometrist also refers patients to medical doctors and specialists for other diseases or injuries that affect vision. During a clinical optometry examination, the doctor measures the patient’s peripheral vision and looks at the shape of the retina. He or she might diagnose astigmatism caused by curvature of the retina and prescribe corrective lenses to improve eyesight. If the patient prefers contact lenses, the doctor typically counsels the patient on their use to prevent infection.
Retinal degeneration is the deterioration of the retina caused by the progressive and eventual death of the cells of the retina. There are several reasons for retinal degeneration, including artery or vein occlusion, diabetic retinopathy, R.L.F./R.O.P. (retrolental fibroplasia/ retinopathy of prematurity), or disease (usually hereditary). These may present in many different ways such as impaired vision, night blindness, retinal detachment, light sensitivity, tunnel vision, and loss of peripheral vision to total loss of vision. Of the retinal degenerative diseases retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a very important example.Inherited retinal degenerative disorders in humans exhibit genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity in their underlying causes and clinical outcomes. These retinopathies affect approximately one in 2000 individuals worldwide. A wide variety of causes have been attributed to retinal degeneration, such as disruption of genes that are involved in phototransduction, biosynthesis and folding of the rhodopsin molecule, and the structural support of the retina.Mutations in the rhodopsin gene account for 25% to 30% (30% to 40% according to) of all cases of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP). In North America there are many mechanisms of retinal degeneration attributed to rhodopsin mutations or mutations that involve or affect the function of rhodopsin.
- Track 12-1Factors compromising retinal cell function
- Track 12-2Diabetic retinopathy
- Track 12-3Therapeutic strategies
Vision science is the scientific study of vision. Vision science encompasses all studies of vision, such as how human and non-human organisms process visual information, how conscious visual perception works in humans, how to exploit visual perception for effective communication, and how artificial systems can do the same tasks. Vision science overlaps with or encompasses disciplines such as ophthalmology and optometry, neuroscience(s), psychology (particularly sensation and perception psychology, cognitive psychology, biopsychology, psychophysics, and neuropsychology), physics (particularly optics), ethology, and computer science (particularly computer vision, artificial intelligence, and computer graphics), as well as other engineering related areas such as data visualization, user interface design, and human factors and ergonomics.
- Track 13-1Visual Acuity and Visual Field
- Track 13-2Visual Motor Abilities
- Track 13-3Visual Perception
- Track 13-4Visual Field Loss
- Track 13-5Diplopia
A refractive error, such as nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia), astigmatism or presbyopia, refractive surgery is a method for correcting or improving vision. There are various surgical procedures for correcting or adjusting eye's focusing ability by reshaping the cornea, or clear, round dome at the front of your eye. Other procedures involve implanting a lens inside the eye. The most widely performed type of refractive surgery is LASIK (laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis), where a laser is used to reshape the cornea.For people who are nearsighted, certain refractive surgery techniques will reduce the curvature of a cornea that is too steep so that the eye's focusing power is lessened. Images that are focused in front of the retina, due to a longer eye or steep corneal curve, are pushed closer to or directly onto the retina following surgery.Farsighted people will have refractive surgery procedures that achieve a steeper cornea to increase the eye's focusing power. Images that are focused beyond the retina, due to a short eye or flat cornea, will be pulled closer to or directly onto the retina after surgery.Astigmatism can be corrected with refractive surgery techniques that selectively reshape portions of an irregular cornea to make it smooth and symmetrical. The result is that images focus clearly on the retina rather than being distorted due to light scattering through an irregularly shaped cornea.
- Track 14-1Causes
- Track 14-2Symptoms
- Track 14-3Risk Factors
- Track 14-4Cataract Surgeries
- Track 14-5Refractive Surgeries
The human eye is an organ that reacts to light and has several purposes. As a sense organ, the mammalian eye allows vision. Rod and cone cells in the retina allow conscious light perception and vision including color differentiation and the perception of depth. The human eye can distinguish about 10 million colors and is possibly capable of detecting a single photon.Due to its diversity there are large number of disorders and diseases and their diagnosis related to it.
- Track 15-1 Retinitis Pigmentosa
- Track 15-2Scleritis
- Track 15-3Pterygium
- Track 15-4CMV Retinitis
- Track 15-5Strabismus
- Track 15-6Optic Neuropathy
- Track 15-7Graves Disease
- Track 15-8Acute Red Eye
- Track 15-9Amblyopia
- Track 15-10Retinal Detachment
- Track 15-11Subconjunctival Haemorrhage
Ocular immunology is a highly specialized branch of medicine devoted to diagnosing and treating patients with inflammatory eye diseases. These diseases can slightly reduce vision or lead to severe vision loss.Ophthalmologists use the general term, uveitis, when referring to the range of inflammatory diseases that affect the uvea. In addition, uveitis is used to describe any inflammatory disease that produces swelling and destroys eye tissues, including within the retina. It’s commonly associated with systemic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Anatomically, uveitis is classified into anterior, intermediate, posterior, and panuveitic forms, depending on which part of the eye is affected. No matter the classification, Sabates Eye Centers can handle it all.
Ophthalmic instruments aid in various ophthalmic procedures to treat the diseases. According to Ophthalmic Medical Devices, Diagnostics, and Surgical Equipment: Global Markets (HLC083B) from BCC Research, the global market was valued at nearly $16.9 billion in 2012, up from almost $15.3 billion in 2010. The market is expected to reach $20.2 billion in 2017, an increase of nearly $3.4 billion during the forecast period and a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.7% from 2012 to 2017.
Markets in the United States are relatively steady and show moderate growth. The U.S. contact lens market in 2012 is estimated at $2.6 billion, accounting for 36% of worldwide sales. The U.S. market is influenced by a variety of factors, including the stability of the economy, healthcare spending, product development, and availability and cost. Sales for contact lenses in the United States are expected to grow at a rate of 3% annually, reaching $3 billion by 2017.
The European contact lens market is currently valued at $2.4 billion, reflecting slightly more than 33% of the $7.3 billion global market. Key markets in Europe include Germany and the United Kingdom, where contact lens markets are well established. Opportunities for growth remain in many Western European regions and the majority of Eastern Europe. By 2017, the European contact lens market is projected to reach $2.8 billion, growing at a rate of 3% annually.
- Track 17-1Tonometer
- Track 17-2Direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy
- Track 17-3Phoropter
- Track 17-4Fundus camera
- Track 17-5Operating microscope
- Track 17-6Ophthalmic lasers
- Track 17-7Vitrectomy machine
- Track 17-8Keratometer
Macular Degeneration is the leading cause of severe vision loss in people over age 60. It occurs when the small central portion of the retina, known as the macula, deteriorates. The retina is the light-sensing nerve tissue at the back of the eye. Because the disease develops as a person ages, it is often referred to as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although macular degeneration is almost never a totally blinding condition, it can be a source of significant visual disability. Most patients with macular degeneration have the dry form of the disease and can lose some form of central vision. However, the dry form of macular degeneration can lead to the wet form. Although only about 10% of people with macular degeneration develop the wet form, they make up the majority of those who experience serious vision loss from the disease.It is very important for people with macular degeneration to monitor their eyesight carefully and see their eye doctor on a regular basis.
- Track 18-1Risk Factors for Macular Degeneration
- Track 18-2Symptoms of Macular Degeneration
- Track 18-3How Is Macular Degeneration Diagnosed?
- Track 18-4Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Optometry is the practice or profession of examinig the eyes and applicable visual systems for defects or abnormalities and the administering of vision tests to evaluate visual acuity and visual perception, in humans. In addition to diagnosis, optometrists (also known as doctors of optometry) are trained and authorize to correct, treat and or manage vision changes through the prescription and dispensement of corrective lenses and or medication when necessary. Opthamologists, optometrists and opticians are not professional equals and posses varying levels of authority and training. An opthamologist is a medical doctor (M.D.) or osteopathic doctor (D.O.); specializes in eye and vision care, has completed 4 years of college and 8 additional years of medical training, is licensed to practice medicine and perform surgeries. Optometrists are healthcare professionals not medical doctors; are not authorize to conduct surgeries, are required to complete a minimum of 3 years of college and 4 years of optometry school. Optician are technician trained in the designing, verifying and fitting of eyewear and other vision correcting devices; they use prescriptions supplied by ophthalmologists or optometrists, are not permitted to diagnosis or treat eye disease and may not test vision or write prescriptions for vision correction.
- Track 19-1Optics
- Track 19-2Introduction to vision science and ocular anatomy
- Track 19-3Advanced human physiology
- Track 19-4Community health
- Track 19-5Ophthalmic optics lab and medical lab procedures
- Track 19-6Developmental and primary optometry
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging test that uses light waves to take cross-section pictures of retina, the light-sensitive tissue lining the back of the eye. With OCT, each of the retina’s distinctive layers can be seen, allowing ophthalmologist to map and measure their thickness. These measurements help with diagnosis and provide treatment guidance for glaucoma and retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic eye disease. To prepare for an optical coherence tomography (OCT) exam, ophthalmologist may put dilating eye drops in the eyes in order to widen the pupil and make it easier to examine the retina. Patient will be seated in front of the OCT machine and will rest his/her head on a support to keep it motionless. The equipment will then scan their eye without touching it. Scanning takes about 5 to 10 minutes. If the eyes were dilated, they may be sensitive to light for several hours after the exam.
- Track 20-1Detect and manage retinal disease and glaucoma
- Track 20-2 Emerging Technology for Biomedical Imaging and Optical Biopsy
- Track 20-3OCT: Current and Future Applications
- Track 20-4Principle and uses in ophthalmology